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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 23(2); 2014 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2014;23(2): 239-268.
doi: https://doi.org/10.13081/kjmh.2014.23.239
해방직후 북한 의학교육의 형성: 1945~1948
허윤정1, 조영수2
1아주대학교 의과대학 인문사회의학교실
Formation of Medical Education in North Korea: 1945-1948
Yun Jung Heo1, Young Soo Cho2
1Department of Social Medicine and Medical Humanities, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea. yunjungheo@naver.com
2Baeksang Dental Clinic, Seoul, Korea.
Received: June 30, 2014;  Accepted: August 12, 2014.  Published online: August 31, 2014.
This study focuses on the formation of medical education in North Korea from 1945 to 1948 in terms of the centralization of medical education, and on the process and significance of the systemization of medical education. Doctors of the past trained under the Japanese colonial system lived and worked as liberalists. More than half of these doctors who were in North Korea defected to South Korea after the country was liberated. Thus the North Korean regime faced the urgent task of cultivating new doctors who would 'serve the state and people.' Since the autumn of 1945, right after national liberation, Local People's Committees organized and implemented medical education autonomously. Following the establishment of the Provisional People's Committee of North Korea, democratic reform was launched, leading to the centralized administration of education. Consequently, medical educational institutions were realigned, with some elevated to medical colleges and others shut down. The North Korean state criticised the liberalistic attitude of doctors and the bureaucratic style of health administration, and tried to reform their political consciousness through political inculcation programs. The state also grant doctors living and housing privileges, which show its endeavor to build 'state medicine'. By 1947, a medical education system was established in which the education administration was put in charge of training new doctors while the health administration was put in charge of nurturing and retraining health workers. In this way, the state was the principal agent that actively established a centralized administrative system in the process of the formation of medical education in North Korea following national liberation. Another agent was deeply involved in this process - the faculty that was directly in charge of educating the new doctors. Studying the medical faculty remains another research task for the future. By exploring how the knowledge, generational experience, socio-political consciousness and world views adopted by these teachers during the colonial era were manifested in their pedagogy after national liberation will shed more light on the 'prototype' of North Korean medical education.
Key Words: Medical education, North Korea, Education administration
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