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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 22(3); 2013 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2013;22(3): 801-846.
doi: https://doi.org/10.13081/kjmh.2013.22.801
1950년대 후반 북한에서 파블로프 학설의 역할: 보건의료계 사상투쟁과 한의학의 과학화를 중심으로
한선희, 김옥주
서울대학교 의과대학 인문의학교실
The Role of Pavlov's Theory in North Korea in the Late 1950s: Ideological Struggle in Medicine and Scientification of Traditional Medicine
Sun Hee Han, Ock Joo Kim
Department of the History of Medicine and Medical Humanities, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. okim9646@snu.ac.k
Received: March 14, 2013;  Accepted: July 8, 2013.  Published online: December 31, 2013.
This paper deals with Pavlov theory in North Korea in the late 1950s, focusing on its role in ideological struggle in medicine and in reinterpretation of traditional medicine. In North Korean Ministry of Health found Pavlov theory to have rich resources which could be used in the construction of the North Korea's socialist medicine. First of all, Pavlov theory provided the North Korean Communist Party with a powerful ideological weapon against capitalist medical thoughts, representing superior socialist medicine based upon Marx-Leninism and dialectical materialism. This paper examines the contents of Pavlov theory introduced in the North Korea from the Soviet Union in the late 1950s. Pavlov theory in the North Korea was not merely a political slogan but a unified medical system of thought, ranging from biological theory on the organism and pathogenesis to clinical theory. Nonetheless, Pavlov theory became Pavlov doctrine in the ideological struggle in healthcare field initiated by Kim Il Sung and the Communist Party. In the process of the ideological struggle, the abducted surgeon Kim Si-Chang was accused and purged of counter-revolutionary and refusal to conform to Pavlov doctrines by the Communist Party in 1959. Interestingly, Pavlov theory was used in reinterpretation of Traditional Medicine in North Korea from unscientific practice to a rich and scientific complementary medicine by connecting the two with common theoretical components such as Pavlov's typology. By the enthusiastic Communist Party members, Pavlov doctrine was introduced, transformed and exploited to build monolithic ideology system in medicine in North Korea in the late 1950s.
Key Words: Pavlov theory;North Korea;medical history;ideological struggle;traditional medicine
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