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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 20(2); 2011 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2011;20(2): 463-492.
침술(鍼術)의 성립에 관한 연구
정우진
The Study on the Establishment of Acupuncture
Woojin Jung
Department of Philosophy, College of Humanities, Seoul, Korea. presolving@naver.com
ABSTRACT
In ancient china, four famous literatures, Huang Di Nei Jing, Nan Jing, Ben Cao, Shang Han Lun appeared, which made the foundation of oriental medicine. Huang Di Nei Jing, the book of acupuncture, is the most essential literature among these four litertures. So the question asking the identity of oriental medicine can be turned into the question about the identity of acupuncture. The investigation into origin will not be the only way to study of identity but one of the most attractive means. So we can answer with the study of origin to the question about identity. Acupuncture is comprised of theories like jing mai, qi xue and technical factors like moxibustion, bian which is like present operating knife. To trace the origin of acupuncture, we must investigate not only technical factors but also theories. But it will be impossible to trace every theories underlying the acupuncture in this small thesis. This is the reason that I restricted my attention to the principle of preventive medicine, regimen. Before the excavation of Mawangdui, the belief that acupuncture started long ago before Han period had been generally accepted. But there was not any proof proving the presence of acupuncture in the excavated literatures representing the Han period medicine. This fact announced that we must draw the time of establishment of acupuncture back after the Mawangdui literature buried in B.C. 168. But we can find the proof of the presence of acupuncture just before B.C. 168 in Shiji written by Si Mi Qian. Through these facts and inferences that we got until now, we can reach a conclusion that acupuncture would have appeared around 190-176 when Chun Yu Yi was practicing as a doctor. As you know, in the Mawangdui literature, what was associated with jing mai was moxibustion. But at the same time, moxibustion was being used just as the experience medicine technique without theory. So the moxibustion would has been about to be associated with jing mai theory in Mawangdui period. The word zhen jiu, the acupuncture and moxibustion, means there was a way to reconcile two techniques. It was by assuming bu and handing xie over to acupuncture that moxa can coexist with acupuncture. bian is used for infection treatment more than bloodletting tool in ancient china. but there is a bridge between acupuncture with bian. Acupuncture inherited its appearance from bian. It is generally believed that blood-letting is commonly developed in the classic east and west medicine. But the blood-letting could be harmonious with the old chinese belief that vitality must be retained in the body? No. The blood-letting is not generally practiced in ancient china. We can scarcely find the evidence of blood-letting in the ancient literature now in hand except Huang Di Nei Jing. Blood-Letting widened its territory in ancient chinese medicine with the help of the medical version of wuweierwubuwei principle which means 'not do anything, then everything does'. But soon lost its territory. Even in the Huang Di Nei Jing, We can find its disappearance. What is the reason? For its disharmony with chinese life idea, 'not lose essence'. Acupuncture replaced the blood-letting. It was the response of the ancient chinese healers to the regimen spirit and harmonious with chinese life view. Regimen spirit, the medical version of 'wuweierwubuwei' does not pursue cure after being ill but defense before disease. Acupuncture, meeting the demands of time, appeared in pre-han period as the association with jingmai theory which may be developed in regimen field, inheritence of moxa's esperience, and the shape of bian.
Key Words: acupuncture, moxa, blood-letting, regimen, ancient chinese medicine, Huang Di Nei Jing, mawangdui
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