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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 11(1); 2002 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2002;11(1): 65-84.
경접형동 접근법의 성립과 발전에 관한 역사적 고찰
서인석, 김옥주, 황상익
Establishment of Transsphenoidal Approach in Skull Base Surgery: A Historical Analysis
In Sok Seo, Ock Joo Kim, Sang Ik Hwang
Department of the History of Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.
Many approaches are being used for exposure of the anterior cranial base regions, ranging from extracranial to intracranial, such as transsphenoidal approach. This intracranial approach, developed in the beginning of the twentieth century, has recently become one of the most commonly used approaches after many incremental improvements. This thesis aims at examining the development of the approach and those who contributed to this procedure. The author also contemplate problems which may occur in the historical analysis. From the nineteenth century, advances have been made in anesthesiology, sterilization, cerebral localization and knowledge of anatomical and physiologic aspects of the skull base. The development of new knowledge and technique has helped to overcome obstacles, making surgery of the skull base through extracranial approach both technically feasible and therapeutically effective. To avoid serious postoperative complications after the extracranial approach, transsphenoidal approach had been developed in the beginning of the twentieth century. Transsphenoidal approach had been widely used right after its introduction. But it had not been used popularly since late 1920s in the United States. In early 1960s, this technique, spread from Europe, has regained popularity and become one of the most widely-used approaches. In the history of the transsphenoidal approach, it has been thought that the effort of Harvey Cushing and Oskar Hirsch, the endeavor of Cushing's scholars, several new attempts of otolaryngologists played an important role. However, comparing to great appreciation of neurosurgeons, especially Harvey Cushing on their significant contribution to the further development of this technique, the role of other pioneering doctors have been underestimated in previous historical studies on the transsphenoidal approach. It was because dynamical relationships among several specialties had influence on the historical analysis. This cases shows that historical analysis is influenced not only by past figures but also by current situations.
Key Words: Transsphenoidal Approach, History of Skull Base Surgery, History of Neurosurgery
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