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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 5(2); 1996 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 1996;5(2): 129-146.
독일 산업보건제도의 변천: 19세기 산업화 초기부터 바이마르공화국까지
고경심1, 황상익2
1단국대학교 의과대학 산부인과학교실
2서울대학교 의과대학 의사학교실
An Introduction on the Changes of the Occupational Health and Safety Systems in Germany: from the 19th Century to the Weimar Republic
Kyung Sim Koh1, Sang Ik Hwang2
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dankook University Medical College, Korea.
2Department of the History of Medicine and Medical Humanities, Seoul National University Medical College, Korea.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and summarize the developmental process of the occupational health and safety systems from the 19th century to the Weimar Republic in Germany. The German occupational health system has changed with its unique character reflecting its sociopolitical backgrounds. In the 19th century, Germany, as the aftercoming capitalistic country in Europe, showed a flourishing industrial development. But this industrial development evoked many side effects, including long working hours, bad work environment, frequent occupational accidents and occupational diseases. The health and safety systems for German workers were established under the influences of the political interest groups and the social movement. In 1884 Bismarck made the law of the occupational accident insurance(Berufsgenossenschaft) in order to oppress the movement of socialists and radical workers and to secure his regimes. Then the way to control the work conditions of factories had three paths: technical supervision by the autonomic engineers, factory inspectors from the occupational accident insurance and the governmental factory supervisors. In the Weimar Republic the needs of the protection for both workers and machines were rising and became one of the main tasks of the government. Therefore, in 1925 the law for the occupational diseases was first established and then some occupational diseases were acknowledged as the occupational accidents and insured by the occupational accident insurance. Many factory doctors, factory hygienists, factory engineers and chemists organized the specialists' supervising and consulting groups for the occupational health and safety. And the workers themselves also started to participate in the factory committee in order to guard their own health and interests.
Key Words: Occupational Health and Safety, Factory Doctors, Occupational Disease, Social Insurance, Occupational Accident Insurance, Germany
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