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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 3(1); 1994 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 1994;3(1): 72-129.
의학교육의 현대화 과정
Modernization Process of the Medical Education in Korea
Chang Duk Kee
Department of Dentistry, Catholic University Medical College Kee's Dental Clinic, Korea.
In Korea, there had been the public educational system of the traditional medicine since Shilla Kingdom, and Koryo government had the selection system of the medical doctors for the public services from the reign of King Kwangjong (AD 958). These traditional system had been maintained until King Kojong of Chosun Kingdom (AD 1885), when the traditional hospital with medical school Hye-Min-Seo was replaced by Che-Jung-Won, the first modern hospital in Korea, where the Western medical service for people and practical medical education were performed by western missionary doctors. But the medical education in Che-Jung-Won did not last long because people and government at that time did not recognize the value of the Western medicine and some medical missionaries had personal difficulties. After the reformation of 1894 when the health administration and service based upon Western medicine were planned, the government of Chosun Kingdom needed the personnel who could practice the Western medicine. So government began by establishing the short-term (three month) Training School for the personnel of the smallpox vaccination in 1897, and founded the first public medical school named Eui-Hak-Kyo of three-year course for educating the medical students in 1899. Although medical subjects were taught by Japanese lecturers in the beginning year of the school, Korean medical doctors (of whom Kim Ik-nam was the first), graduates from the medical schools in Japan actively participated in the teaching the Korean students from the next year. But with the 1905 'Protectorate Treaty', Eui-Hak-Kyo was renamed Tae-Han-Eui-Won Eui-Yook-Bu with the authority running the school under the Japanese hands. From then almost all the processes of modernization in medicine were controlled by Japanese. On the other hand, the first private medical school named Che-Jung-Won Eui-Hak-Kyo began to be run by Dr OR Avison, an medical missionary of the US Northern Presbyterian Church from the year 1899. After the 1910 annexation of Korea by Imperial Japan, the system and the contents of the medical education were reorganized according to those in Japan. So the modernization of medicine and medical education in Korea was not for Korea and Korean people but for the convenience of Imperial Japanese administration. The March First Movement of 1919 made the Japanese policy changed. In 1925 Japanese government established the Kyongsung Imperial University Medical School whose faculty were mainly composed of the professors of the Kyongsung Medical College , and which was also for the Japanese ruling, not for Korean people. As the Kyongsung Imperial University Medical School was founded, the Kyongsung Medical College became independent from the government-general hospital and several Korean doctors were installed as the professors of the school. After the 1931 war between Japan and China, Pyongyang and Taegu Medical Colleges in 1933 and Kwangju and Hamheung Medical Colleges in 1944 were founded, but which are thought to be also for the militaristic Japanese administration, not for the improvement of the medical education in Korea. In colonial Korea there were two private medical schools. One was Severence Union Medical School, the other was Kyongsung Women's Medical College for women whose faculty were mainly composed of Korean although which was operated by the Japanese master. The former, the late self of private Che-Jung-Won, was one whose educational and administrative staff were composed of the western missionary and Korean doctors and so whose administration and education were relatively freely performed from the Japanese government.
Key Words: Medical Education, Modernization of Medical Education, Training School for the personnel of the smallpox vaccination, Eui-Hak-Kyo, Che-Jung-Won Eui-Hak-Kyo, Pyongyang Che-Jung-Won Eui-Hak-Kyo, Tae-Han-Eui-Won Eui-Yook-Bu, Severence Union Medical College, Kyongsung Medical College, Kyongsung Imperial University Medical School, Pyongyang Training School for Medicine, Pyongyang Medical College, Taegu Training School for Medicine, Taegu Medical College, Kyongsung Women's Training School for Medicine, Kyongsung Women's Medical College
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