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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 22(3); 2013 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2013;22(3): 847-878.
doi: https://doi.org/10.13081/kjmh.2013.22.847
해방 이후 약무행정의 제도적 정착과정: 1953년 「약사법」 제정을 중심으로
The Institutionalization of Pharmaceutical Administration After the Korean Liberation: Focusing on Regulating the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop) in 1953
Kyu Hwan Sihn
Department of Medical History and Institute for History of Medicine, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. jerryq@yuhs.ac
Received: May 31, 2013;  Accepted: July 8, 2013.  Published online: December 31, 2013.
The pharmaceutical administration under U.S Military Government in Korea and government of the Republic of Korea aimed at cleaning up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism which the pharmaceutical administration attached police administration and preparing with legal and systemic basis after the Korean liberation. The pharmaceutical bureau under U.S Military Government in Korea was reorganized as the independent division. The pharmaceutical bureau focused on preserving order, narcotics control and the distribution of relief drug. U.S Military Government proceeded supply side pharmaceutical policy for the distribution of relief drug without constructing human and material infrastructure. After the Korean War, Korean society asked the construction of system for nation building. Korean national assembly regulated National Medical Law(Gukmin uiryobeop) for promotion of public health in 1951. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop) was regulated in 1953, and it prescribed the job requirement of pharmacist, apothecary, and drug maker and seller, and presented the frame of managing medical supplies. The Pharmaceutical Law originally planned the ideal pharmaceutical administration, but it rather secured the status of traditional apothecary, and drug maker and seller. On the contrary, though the Pharmaceutical Law guaranteed the traditional druggists, it did not materialize reproduction system such as educational and license system. It means that the traditional druggists would be degenerated in the near future. After the armistice agreement in 1953, Korean was in medical difficulties. Korean government was suffered from the deficiency of medical resources. Because of destruction of pharmaceutical facilities, Korean had to depend on United States and international aid. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law did not cleaned up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism, and compromised with reality lacked human and material infrastructure. As a result, the law became the origin of pharmaceutical disputes such as pharmacist voluntary prescription, the separation of pharmacy and clinic, the compounding of traditional medicines, and the traditional pharmacist system. However, it was meaningful that the law was the turning point of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the Korean Liberation.
Key Words: the institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration;the Korean Liberation;the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop);U.S. Military Government;pharmacist;traditional apothecary;drug maker and seller
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