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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 22(1); 2013 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2013;22(1): 41-88.
doi: https://doi.org/10.13081/kjmh.2013.22.41
병자호란 전후(1636-1638) 소의 역병(牛疫) 발생과 확산의 국제성
김동진1, 유한상2
2서울대학교 수의과대학 전염병학교실
Globalism of Outbreak and Prevalence of Cattle Plague(Rinderpest) around Byengjahoran (1636-1638)
Dong Jin Kim1, Han Sang Yoo2
1Cheongju National University of Education, Chungbuk, Korea. kimdj66@hanmail.net
2Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Received: February 1, 2013;  Accepted: March 19, 2013.  Published online: April 30, 2013.
This study reviewed the outbreak and prevalence of cattle plague around Byeongjahoran from the perspective of international war in East Asia. First of all, the epidemiological characteristics of cattle plague in Manchuria where the outbreak of cattle plague was first reported around Byeongjahoran were analyzed. From the study, it was found the military activities that Sarhu (Qing) had made during the growth into Empire promoted the exchanges of various germs which became naturalized in the regions in Northeast Asia, and that such extreme situation as war made various diseases taken place and dispersed. In particular, because of military activities of Sarhu (Qing), various contagious diseases including smallpox which was prevalent in Inner-Mongolia and Shanxi became prevalent in Manchuria. During the contacts with Chosun after Jeongmyohoran, pathogen occurring Rinderpest was introduced into Manchuria. Favorable conditions for the interactions with various pathogens were provided by frequent contacts with wild animals through hunting and various cultivation groups composed of Manchurians, Mongolians, Han-Chinese and Chosun people. Rinderpest breaking in Chosun around Byeongjahoran was originated in Shenyang in 1636. It was transmitted to cattle in the Korean Peninsula and expanded to Kansai Region. At that time Rinderpest occurred and rapidly expanded in a specific area due to the interactions of pathogens, hosts and environments, and suddenly disappeared because of the extinction and the separation of hosts. It is consistent with the symptoms of modern times 'Rinderpest.' In Chosun it occurred in Pyeongan-do 4 months before the outbreak of Byeongjahoran and gave great damage on the capital area and northern Gyeonggi region. Because of the large scale migration of militaries after Byeongjahoran, Rindpest was expanded to Hasamdo and was terminated in February to April leaving big damages. The damages of Byeongjahoran were very severe. From the statistical records, it was found that the mortality rate in Gyenggi-do was around 2/3, around 50% in Jeju area. The mortality rate of infected cattle was around 75%. In some records based on individual cases, 80-100% of mortality rate was addressed. It is comparable to 25% of mortality in 1627, and is near or less than the mortality rate of Rinderpest in the 19th and 20the century. When analyzing the expansion of Rinderpest from the perspective of place, the most damaged places were areas near the busy roads or the places with dense population. Therefore, the remote places far from busy roads or separated from the affected places right after the outbreak did not have much damage. Additionally, rich stock-feeders had relatively small damages and poor households with 1 or 2 stokes were badly affected. The prevention and supply of medication by government made considerably positive effects on the prevention and treatment of Finderpest.
Key Words: Qing, military activities, Korean Peninsula, Byeongjahoran (Manchu war of 1636), Cattle Plague, outbreak and prevalence, damage aspect, regional difference
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