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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 20(2); 2011 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2011;20(2): 395-424.
한국 근대 의료 건축물에 관한 연구
한동관1, 류창욱2, 고상균3, 정재국3, 문종윤4, 박윤형4
1연세대학교
2경원대학교 대학원
3관동대학교 건축학부
4순천향대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실
Research on the Hospital Construction and Structure in Daehan Empire and Colonial Modern Period
Dong Gwan Han1, Chang Ug Ryu2, Sang Kyun Ko3, Jae Kook Jung3, Jong Youn Moon4, Yoon Hyung Park4
1Yonsei University, Korea.
2Department of Health Care Management, Graduate School of Kyungwon University, Korea.
3School of Archtecture, Kwandong University, Korea.
4Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Soonchunhang University, Korea. parky@sch.ac.kr
ABSTRACT
It was the late Chosun Dynasty and Daehan Empire era that Western Medicine has firstly been introduced to Korea, previously operating on a basis of Korean traditional medicine. Western Medicine has been introduced by American missionary and Japanese Imperialism. An introduction of Western Medicine made it feasible to proceed new type medical care including operation, leading to require a new form of medical facilities. In the beginning, new facilities were constructed by Japanese Imperialism. Other hand many of facilities including Severance Hospital were established by missionaries. First of all, Daehan Empire established and managed a modern type of medical facility named "Jejoongwon" in 1885 as a government institution hospital. The Red Cross Hospital built in 1889. Afterwards, Jejoongwon and the Red Cross Hospital were taken over to missionary hospital and Japanese Imperialism, respectively. Japanese Imperialists firstly have protected their nationals residing in Chosun but have proceeded care a few Chosun people to exploit medical treatment as a mean to advertise superiority of the Empire of Japan. The facility that has firstly been established and managed was Jeseang Hospital in Busan in 1877, leading to establish in Wonju, Wonsan, and Mokpo. Afterwards, Japan has organized "Donginhoi" as a civil invasion organization, leading for "Donginhoi" to established "Dongin Hospital" in Pyeongyang, Daegu, and Seoul. Since 1909, governmental leading medical facility named Jahye Hospital was established according to an imperial order, leading to establish 32 hospitals all over the nation. American missionaries have established and managed 28 hospitals started from Severance Hospital built in 1904. However, Chosun doctors started to having educated and opening up their own hospital since 1920, leading for many of medical facilities to be established, but most of them have taken different roles followed by 6.25 War and economic development period. However, some of them are currently under protection as cultural assets, and some of them are now preserved. Buildings have originally been structured of wood as a single story in the beginning, but bricks started to be steadily used, leading to build two story building. Each of clinic department started to be separated since 1920, establishing operation room and treatment room. Now, a change of perception as to buildings that need to be preserved and an attention from government and doctors are required since modern medical facilities keep disappearing.
Key Words: Modernized Hospitals, Japanese Imperialism Hospital, Missionary Hospital
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