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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 19(2); 2010 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2010;19(2): 343-384.
19세기 말 20세기 초 의약업의 변화와 개업의: 洋藥局과 藥房附屬診療所의 浮沈
이흥기
Changes of Medico-pharmaceutical Profession and Private Practice from the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century : Ebb and Flow of Western Pharmacies and Clinics Attached to Pharmacy
Heung Ki Lee
Center for Hospital History and Culture, Seoul National university Hospital 28 Yongeon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-711, Korea. vthm092@snu.ac.kr
ABSTRACT
This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers. Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical system with doctors at the pinnacle and spread of modern Western medicine, and support of capitalists.
Key Words: Western pharmacy, clinic attached to pharmacy, private practice, medico-pharmaceutical professional, patent medicine business, traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom
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