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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 1(1); 1992 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 1992;1(1): 3-12.
서양의학교육의 효시
The Beginning of Western Medical Education
Chang Duk Kee
Our country had quite an advanced system of medical education during the era of the Koryo Kingdom, and during the Choson Dynasty, the Kyong Guk Dae Jon, in Which a systematized medical education was clearly described, was compiled in the era of King Sejong. However, the educational system was not for Western medicine. Western medicine was first introduced to our country in the 9th year of King Injo(1631) when Chong Du Won, Yi Yong Jun, etc., returned from Yon Gyong(Beiuin) with Chik Bang Oe Gi. Knowledge of Western medicine was disseminated by Shil Hak(practical learning) scholars who read a translation in Chinese characters, of Chik Bang Oe Gi. Yi Ik(Song Ho), Yi Gyu Gyong(O ju), Choe Han Gi(Hye Gang), Chong Yak Yong(Ta San), etc., read books of Western medicine and introduced in writing the excellent theory of Western medicine. In addition, Yu Hyong Won(Pan Gye), Pak Ji Won(Yon Am), Pak Je Ga(Cho Jong). etc., showed much interest in Western medicine, but no writings by them about western medicine can be found. With the establishment of a treaty of amity with Japan in the 13th year of King Kojong(1876), followed by the succession of amity treaties with Western powers, foreigners including medical doctors were permitted to flow into this country. At that time, doctors Horace N. Allen, W.B. Scranton, John W. Heron, Rosetta Sherwood(Rosetta S. Hall), etc. came to Korea and inaugurated hospitals, where they taught Western medicine to Korean students. Dr. Horace N. Allen, with the permission of king Kojong, established Che Jung Won in April 1885, and in March 1886, he began at the hospital to provide education of Western medicine to Korean students who were recruited by the Korean Government. However, the education was not conducted on a regular basis, only training them for work as assistants. This is considered to be the pioneer case of Western medical education in this country. Before that time, Japanese medical doctors came to Korea, but there are no records showing they conducted medical education. There is a document showing that Chi Sok Yong, who not a medical doctor, accompanied a diplomatic mission to Japan in 1880, and returned with the technique of vaccination. As a Korean, he was the first to learn and introduce western medicine to this country.
Key Words: Western Medical Education, Che Jung Won, H.N. Allen
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