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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 2(2); 1993 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 1993;2(2): 142-158.
대구에서의 의학교육(1890-1945)
Medical Education in Taegu(1980-1991)
Chang Duk Kee
Key's Dental Clinic, Korea.
In Taegu, the Yaknyongshi was established as early as the 9th year of King Hyojong(1658) of the Chosen Dynasty, and in the 10th year of King Hyojong(1659) the 'Tonguibogam' was published as a Yongyongbon edition by the Kyongsang Provincial Government In fact, it may not be an exaggeration to say that Taegu was the base of the traditional medicine in Korea. In the meantime the general public began to become aware of the importance of Western medicine when Dr. Woodbridge O Johnson of the Northern Presbyterian Church introduced Western medicine by opening the 'Miguk Yakpang'(American dispensary) and began to teach Western medicine to Korean youths. At that time, while constructing the Kyong for a war against Russia, Japanese began to establish hospitals in several major cities and towns along the railway line and mobilized Tonginhae doctors. However, those medical facilities were solely for the benefit of Japanese people residing in Korea and had nothing to do with ordinary Koreans. The attached medical school of the Taegu Tonginuiwon failed, contrary to expectation, to turn out even a single Korean medical doctor. This hospital was later reorganized into Taegu Chahyeuiwon and was soon closed according to the policy of educational unification of the Government General Korea. The keen interest in the Western medicine shown by the people of Taegu resulted from the long history of this area as a base of Oriental medicine. More than 10 years after the abolition of the institute far Western medicine in Pyongyang a Western medical training center was inaugurated as a night school in January 1923 by the Chahyeuiwon and the school began to be operated under the name of the Pyongyang Provincial Medical Training Institute. In July 1923, in Taegu, the Taegu Medical Training Institute was inaugurated in the compound of the Chahyeuiwon as a night school in imitation of the institute in Pyongyang. In march 1924, this institute, following the example of that in Pyongyang was renamed the Taegu Provincial Medical Training Institute with the promulgation of a decree of Kyongsangbukdo regarding the regulation on the Taegu Medical Training Institute. Thanks to the strong demand by the population of the Kyongsanbukdo, fund-raising and other campaigns by Koreans and Japanese, and active efforts by the local governmental authorities, the Taegu Provincial Medical Training Institute was approved as an institute of a semimedical college level by the Government-General in Korea with the promulgation of the regulations on the Kyongsangbuk-do Medical Training Institute in May 1929. In March 1930, both the Taegu Provincial Medical Training Institute and Pyongyang Provincial Medical Training Institute were designated as "Uihakkyo(medical school)" by the Government-General in Korea. By this designation, the graduates of the schools were given a medical license permitting them to practice medicine in korea. That is to say, the graduates enjoyed the same privilege to exercise professional right within Korea as those of other medical colleges. Three years later, on March 4 1933, the regulations on public schools in Korea were revised and, on March 6, the establishment of medical colleges were permitted. Thus, in Kyongsangbukdo, the regulations on the Taegu Medical College were proclaimed in the form of a decree of the provincial government and, in accordance with the regulations, professors were nominated and students were recruited. In the meantime, with the timely completion of construction of the college building in August 1933, the college moved to the new compound in November of the same year. Thus, the Taegu Medical College, equipped with new facilities, emerged and satisfied the long-cherished desire of the people in this area. Unlike the Pyongyang Medical College, the Taegu Medical College had some Korean teaching staff members. They were: Pak Jae-Hwan(professor) ; Seo Sung-Hae, Chung He-Taek, Lee Myeng-Hun, Kwon Kil-Chae, Choe Duk-Saeng, Pae Chong-Ho, Lee Chil-Hui(assistant professor) ; and Cha Ham-Su, Kee Yong-Suk(instructors). They taught and conducted research in various departments of clinical and basic medicine. However, there were few Korean graduates of the Taegu Medical College who continued study and research at their alma mater. It is known that Korean graduates of this medical college did their study and research mostly at medical colleges in Japan or at the Medical Department of the Kyongsuong Imperial University. The author wishes to pay his tribute of sincere praise to the painstaking efforts and diligence of the small number of graduates of this medical college who, in spite of the haughtiness and prejudice by the Japanese, conducted study and research that later led to the foundation of the Kyongbuk University Medical College.
Key Words: Taegu Chejungwon Uihakkyo, Taegu Tonginuiwon Uihakkyo, Taegu Provincial Medical Training Institute, Taegu Medical College
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